Chapter 9: Observers and their Responsibilities
Roundnet is a team sport played by two teams consisting of two players each. Opposing team
members line up across from each other with the Spikeball™ roundnet set in the center. A point
begins when the server hits the ball off the net towards the opposing player. After the service,
there are no sides or boundaries. The object of the game is to hit the ball off the net in such a
way that the opposing team canno
t successfully return it.
A team is allowed up to three touches to return the ball onto the net. Once the ball is played off
the net, possession switches to the opposing team. The rally continues until a team is unable to
legally return the ball. Players
may move as they wish during a point, so long as they don’t
physically impede the opponent’s play on the ball.
Chapter 1: Equipment and Court
1.1.1. Regulation Equipment
A Spikeball™ Pro Set and Ball are to be used for official
1.1.2. Set Contents and Dimensions
A Spikeball™ Pro Set consists of 5 rims, 5 legs,
and a net. The set has a diameter of 3 feet and a height of 8 i
1.1.3. Net Tension
The tension on the net should be consistent throughout. A ball
dropped from 5 feet above the net should bounce up approximately 1 foot.
1.1.4 Ball Inflation
The ball should be inflated to 12 inches in circumference.
1.2.1. Court Components
A roundnet court consists of the set, service lines, and
designated playing space. A minimum of 25’ x 25’ is recommended for each court,
however, there are no out of bounds.
1.2.2. Serving Lines
When possible, a serving line circle should be drawn 6 feet from
the edge of the set or 7.5 feet from the center of the set. When indoors or unable to draw
lines, tape may be placed 6 feet from the set’s edge or 7.5 feet from the set’s center at
equal intervals around the set to out
line a circle.
Chapter 2: Participants
2.1. Team Composition
A team consists of 2 players.
2.2. Player Equipment / Clothing
2.2.1. Players may wear cleats, sneakers, or play barefoot at their own risk.
dangerous parts, such as metallic
baseball cleats, track spikes, or worn or broken studs
with sharp edges, are not allowed.
Players may wear glasses at their own risk.
Players may wear any soft clothing that does not endanger the safety of other
players or provide unfair adv
Compression pads (ex: knee pads) may be worn for protection or support.
Players may not use clothing or equipment to unfairly inhibit or assist the
movement of the ball or another player.
The tournament director reserves the r
ight to refuse any player equipment or
clothing that does not abide by these guidelines.
SRA reserves the right to alter a team name, team logo, jersey graphic, or uniform if it is
inappropriate for the specific event or the organization as a whole.
Chapter 3: Playing Format
3.1. To Score a Point
Roundnet is played using rally scoring; points can be won by the serving
or receiving team. A team scores a point when:
3.1.1. The opposing team fails to legally return the ball to the set.
3.1.2. The opposing team commits a point
3.1.3. The opposing team’s server fails to hit a legal serve or has two successive faults.
A point is replayed when:
3.2.1. Teams disagree on the legality of a hit.
3.2.2. Teams di
sagree on an infraction.
3.2.3. A hinder occurs.
3.2.4. There is outside interference (ie a player, ball, or other object from outside a
match impedes on the game).
3.2.5. If a point is replayed after a legal serve is hit, the game resumes at the same
core, player positions, and serving order. The server will start on their first serve. If a
point is replayed because the teams cannot agree on the legality of the serve, the game
resumes at the same score, player positions, and serving order, and fault co
A rally is a sequence of playing actions between the moment the serve is hit to the
moment the ball is out of play.
3.3.1 If the serving team wins a rally, they score a point and continue to serve.
3.3.2 If the receiving team wins a ra
lly, they score a point and must serve next.
3.2. To Win a Game
A game is won by the team that first scores the designated number of
points (typically 15 or 21).
3.2.1. Games must be won by two points unless otherwise specified. In the case of a 14
20 tie, play is continued until a 2 point lead is achieved (17
15 or 27
3.2.2. Hard cap
according to the tournament director’s discretion, certain games can be
given a hard cap, meaning if the score is tied at a given number, the next point wi
example, in games with a hard cap at 25, if the score is 24 to 24, the game will be
decided by the next point. Hard caps should be set before the games start.
3.3. To Win a Match
A match is won when a team wins the designated number of games
A team that is not able or refuses to play when summoned to do so may be subject
to a forfeit loss at the tournament director's discretion.
3.5. Deciding Serve/Receive
3.5.1. One and Two
Before a match, a
player from each team plays
one game of Rocks, Paper, Scissors. The winner gets to choose serve/receive or side.
In match play, serve/receive and side will switch in the second game.
If the match goes to a third game, the teams
game of Rocks, Paper, Scissors and the winner is awarded the choice of serve/receive
or side in the third game.
3.6.1. The four players start set up in four positions around the set, 90 degrees apart.
Teammates are located nex
t to each other. All players must start with their entire body at
least 6 feet from the set.
3.6.2. The established positions should be used for the duration of the match. Typically
the positions are parallel and perpendicular to the orientation of the fi
3.6.3. At the start of a game, the serving team sets their positions first and declares
which player will start serving. Once the serving team is set, the receiving team positions
3.6.4. The receiver is the player that is positioned 18
0 degrees across from the server.
Once the server is set the receiver may adjust their position and is free to move
anywhere without distance restrictions.
3.6.5. Only the designated receiver can field the serve.
3.6.6. The other two players may only mov
e from their positions once the ball is hit by
3.6.7. If the serving team wins the point, the server switches positions with their partner
and serves to the other member of the opposing team.
3.6.8. After every 5 points players rotate one pos
ition counterclockwise to equalize
3.6.9. If a non
receiving or non
serving player takes a step before the ball is hit by the
server, they lose the point. In the c
ase where both non
receiving and non
move before the ball is hit by the server, the team that moved first will lose the point. If
the infractions happen simultaneously the point will be replayed.
eams are allotted one 60
second timeout per game. The
out may not be called during a point. The teams may not leave the court area and
should have refreshments or equipment stored near the court before the match.
3.7.2 Injury timeouts
Each player is
allotted one 3
minute injury timeout per game. See
3.10.1 for details.
3.8. Time Between Points
Points should be played in succession without breaks. After the rally
has finished the ball should be recovered immediately. Once the ball has been recovere
given to the server, they must set their position, announce the score, and hit their serve. This
sequence of events should take place within 10 seconds of recovering the ball. Delaying these
actions will result in a delay of game warning. After recei
ving a delay of game warning, any
additional infractions will be considered a fault.
3.9. Time Between Games
Players will be given 3 minutes between games. Players should
remain near their court. Failure to be ready to start after the break will resul
t in a delay of game
warning at 3 minutes. If players aren’t set within the next minute, one point will be given to the
opposing team. An additional point will be assessed for every minute teams are late.
3.10. Changing and Adjusting Equipment
In the c
ase of a set or ball no longer being suitable
for play, the game shall pause while a replacement is found. When replaced, the game resumes
at the same score, player positions, and serving order and situation (ie 1st vs 2nd serve, # of
timeouts remaining, p
enalties/warning still in effect, etc.) as before. If a net gets moved out of
position or gets altered from its original state (ie a leg piece gets turned in, the net comes off a
hook, etc.) it should be returned to its original position and state before p
layers set for the next
3.11. Exceptional Interruptions
In the case of an injury, the game is stopped. If the player is not able to
return to play before 3
minutes is up, the team must forfeit that game. If the player
returns to pl
ay and is injured again within that game, they must return to play in one
minute or be subject to forfeit. Any further injury stoppage during the game that lasts
more than 15 seconds between points will cause the injured player to forfeit.
In the case of an external interference preventing the
game to be played, the game shall pause. When the game can be resumed, the game
continues at the same score, player positions, and serving order and situation (ie 1st vs
ve, # of timeouts remaining, penalties/warning still in effect, etc.) as before.
Chapter 4: Serving
4.1. First serve of the game
The first team to serve is decided by one game of Rock, Paper,
Scissors (see 3.5).
4.2. Serving order
4.2.1. The initia
l serving team decides which player from their team will start as the
server. That player continues to serve until the receiving team wins a point.
4.2.2. Once the receiving team wins a point, they get the service possession and choose
who will start serv
ing for their team. From there on, service alternates between
teammates after each change of service possession. This four person order continues
the rest of the game.
4.2.3. Order in a New Game
The process stated in 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 occurs each game
the serving order does not need to stay the same for multiple games.
4.3. Serving Position
If the serving team wins the point, the server switches positions with their
partner and serves to the other member of the opposing team.
4.4 Characteristics of
4.4.1. All parts of the server’s body and the ball must be behind the 6 foot service line
when the ball is struck.
4.4.2. Before serving, the server must set their feet.
4.4.3. At least one foot must maintain a single point of contact with the
ground until the
ball is struck.
4.4.4. The server may take one step in any direction. This action establishes the pivot
foot. Once the non
pivot foot touches the ground, that foot must also maintain one point
4.4.5. The ball must travel at l
east 4 inches away from the point of release from the
server’s hand before it is struck.
4.4.6. Serves must be struck.The ball cannot be caught, carried, or thrown.
4.4.7. Serves may be struck with any amount of force; short serves are allowed.
rves may not pass higher than the receiver's straight
up extended hand. (See
4.6.9) There is no limit to the angle at which serves can be hit.
4.5 Execution of the service
4.5.1. The server must start centered over their correct position (see 3.6.2) and
feet. The server then calls the score to the receiver, placing the serving team’s score
before the receiving team’s score. Only the designated receiver can field the serve. The
receiver may move from their position once the server has set up.
4.5.2. If the server commits a Service Fault (see 4.6) the serving team has one more
attempt to hit a legal serve.
188.8.131.52. If the server commits a service fault, either player on the receiving team
has until the ball is hit for a second time to call “faul
t.” The server is then
allocated a second serve. If a second “fault” is called, the receiving team is
awarded a point.
184.108.40.206. Players may choose to play through a fault. Unless a call is made the
play is live. Players are not required to say anything if
they choose to play
through a fault.
4.5.3. If the server commits a Service Infraction (see 4.7) the receiving team is awarded
4.6. Service faults
4.6.1. The server does not announce the score before
4.6.2. The ball is struck
before traveling 4 inches away from the point of release from the
4.6.3. The ball is struck from within the 6 foot service line.
4.6.4. The server’s feet contact or cross the 6 foot service line before the ball is struck. If
the server hi
ts the ball with one foot airborne, that foot must contact the ground at least 6
feet from the net before further movement.
4.6.5. The server does not maintain one point of contact with their pivot foot.
4.6.6. After taking a step, the server does not ma
intain one point of contact with their
4.6.7. The ball’s trajectory changes due to proximity to the rim, without contacting the rim
(i.e. pocket). Exception: If the ball hits near the server’s side of the net, commonly called
a near net, it
typically bounces low and hard without a change in direction. This is a legal
4.6.8. The ball lands on the net and rolls into the rim and up (i.e. roll
4.6.9. The ball is higher than the receiver’s straight
up extended hand. If a serve hits th
palm of a straight
up extended hand it is good. If it hits the fingertips of an straight
extended hand it is too high.
4.6.10. The ball is tossed and not hit/contacted.
Dropping, catching or swinging at and
missing a toss all count as a fault.
4.7.1. The ball misses the set entirely.
4.7.2. The ball contacts the rim directly.
4.7.3. The ball bounces multiple times on the net or bounces on the net then hits the set
on the way down.
4.7.4. After the ball is served, the first contact is by a player on the serving team (i.e. a
player hits their partner with the serve).
4.8. Faults and Infractions
If a fault and infraction both occur during a serve, the infraction is
5: Playing the Ball
5.1. In Play
The ball is in play from the moment the server strikes it until one of the following
5.1.1. The ball contacts the ground.
5.1.2. A serving fault occurs and/or is called by the receiving team or an observer.
5.1.3. An infraction occurs and/or is called by any team or an observer.
5.2. Hitting the ball
5.2.1. A hit is any contact with the ball by a player.
5.2.2. A team is entitled to a maximum of 3 hits alternating between players for returning
the ball to
the set. If more are used, the team commits the infraction of “Four hits” and
loses the point.
5.2.1 Consecutive Contacts
A player may not hit the ball twice consecu
tively. Exception see
If teammates touch the
ball simultaneously it is counted as two
hits. Either teammate may take the next hit provided they have not already used all three hits.
5.3. Characteristics of the hit
5.3.1. The ball may touch any part of the body.
5.3.2. The ball must be struck, not
caught, lifted, or thrown.
5.3.3. Players may not hit the ball with two hands. Exception see rules 5.3.4 and 5.3.5.
At the first hit of the
team on a possession, t
he ball may touch various parts of the
body, provided that the contacts take place si
. At the first hit of the team on a possession, the ball may contact various parts of
the body consecutively, provided that the contacts occur during one action.
5.4. Infractions in Playing the Ball
5.4.1. Four hits
A team hits the ba
ll more than three times before returning it to the set.
The ball is carried, caught, or thrown.
A player hits the ball with both hands. Exception see rule 5.3.4
A player hits the ball twi
ce in succession or the bal
various parts of their
body in succ
ession. Exception see rule 5.3.5
5.5. Hits on the net
5.5.1. Illegal hits on the net
When the ball is returned to the set, the return results in a
loss of point for the hitting
. The ball contacts the rim of the set directly.
. The ball bounces multiple times on the net or bounces on the net then
hits the set on the way down.
. The ball has a prolonged roll along the netting.
rally, any shot that changes the trajectory of the ball due to the
ball’s proximity to the rim, without contacting the rim (i.e. pocket) is legal. Note, this is not
legal on a serve.
During a rally, a hard
struck shot that lands on the ne
tting, rolls into the
rim and then off the net (i.e. roll
up) is legal. Note, this is not legal on a serve.
5.5.4. Change of Possession
220.127.116.11. Once the ball comes off of the netting the non
hitting team may then
contact the ball.
18.104.22.168. The non
team may not contact the ball while it is in contact with
5.5.5. Other hitting violations
22.214.171.124. A defensive player attempts to play the ball out of turn. This results in the
loss of the point.
126.96.36.199. An offensive player hits a shot off t
he net which subsequently hits himself
or his teammate. This results in the loss of the point.
5.6. Contact with the Set
Any contact with the set by a player (rims, legs, or netting) during a
rally results in a “Set Contact” infraction for the offendin
g player and is a loss of point for that
Chapter 6: Hinders
A hinder is any situation in which a player’s positioning prevents the opposing team from safely
making a play on the ball. Remember: player safety is paramount.
Hindering the Offense
Defending players must make an effort not to impede the
offending team’s possession or play on the ball. If a defender’s position prevents a makeable
play on the ball, the infracted player may call “hinder.” The call should be made
as soon as the
infraction occurs and play should stop immediately.
6.1.1. Avoidable Hinder
If the hinder is avoidable and the offensive player has a strong
play on the ball, the point is awarded to the offensive team.
Defensive team throws arm
in front of shot over the net, preventing
offensive player from swinging.
the hitter is contacted by a defensive player during the act of swinging
in close proximity to the net.
6.1.2. Unavoidable Hinder
If the defender has no time to avoid th
e hinder when playing
in a legitimate defensive position, the point is replayed, even if the offensive team has a
strong play on the ball.
A close range body block pops up and goes directly into the defending
6.2. Defender in the Ball’s
If during possession (or en route to the net), the ball contacts
the defender to prevent a makeable offensive play, this is a hinder. The point will either be
replayed or rewarded to the offense depending on the circumstances (see 6.1.1 and 6.1.2).
6.3. Offense Hindering the Defense
While less common, hinders can occur by the offensive team. The infracted player may call
“hinder.” The call should be made as soon as the infraction occurs. Hinders by the offense result
in the point being replayed.
hitting offensive player contacts defensive player preventing them from
making a play.
Hitter falls into defensive player after taking their shot.
After setting the ball, the setter attempts to restrict the defense’s move
Chapter 7: Participant Conduct
7.1. Sportsmanlike Conduct
7.1.1. Participants must know the Official SRA rules and abide by them.
7.1.2. Participants must play with integrity. The responsibility of fair play is first and
foremost on the players. I
f a participant knows that they committed any sort of violation,
it is their obligation to call it.
7.1.3. Participants must accept observers’ decisions with sportsmanlike conduct, without
disputing them. In case of doubt or confusion, clarification may be
7.1.4. Participants must refrain from actions or attitudes aimed at influencing the
decisions of the observers.
7.2. Fair Play
Participants must behave respectfully and courteously in the spirit of fair play,
not only towards the observers
, but to opponents, partners, spectators, or tournament
Inappropriate conduct by a player towards observers, opponents, partners,
spectators, or tournament personnel is classified in three categories according to the
ess of the offence.
7.3.1. Rude conduct
Action contrary to good manner or moral principles.
7.3.2. Offensive conduct
Defamatory or insulting words or gestures or any action
Actual physical attack or aggressive
or threatening behavior.
7.3.2. Misconduct Sanction Scale
The first rude conduct of the match by a player is sanctioned with a
warning by the observer or tournament director.
The second rude conduct of the same match b
y the same player is
penalized with a point awarded by the observer or tournament director. The first
offensive conduct of the match by a player is penalized with a point awarded by the
observer or tournament director.
rude conduct of the same match by the same player
is sanctioned by tournament disqualification by the observer or tournament director. The
second offensive conduct of the match by a player is sanctioned by tournament
disqualification by the observer or to
urnament director. The first physical attack or
implied or threatened aggression is sanctioned by tournament disqualification by the
observer or tournament director.
7.3.3. Misconduct before and between games/matches
Any misconduct occurring before,
een, or after games/matches are sanctioned according to rule 7.3.2 and sanctions apply in
the following games. If not observed by a tournament official, this misconduct should be
reported to the tournament director. Once a player receives a penalty, they w
ill no longer get
warnings in subsequent matches for that event. Sanctions will start at the penalty level.
Chapter 8: Making Calls and Settling Disagreements
8.1. Calling Service Faults
8.2. Calling Service Infractions
ions (like a direct rim hit) must be called
immediately after occurrence and play should stop.
8.3. Hitting and Play Infractions
Hitting infractions (like a direct rim hit) or play infractions (like
contact with the set) must be called immediately afte
r occurrence and play should stop.
8.4. Calling Hinder
Hinders must be called immediately after occurrence and play should stop.
If teams cannot determine the legality of a hit, serve, or call (when
observers are not present), th
ey must replay the point. Teammates do not have to agree with
each other for that team to issue a disagreement. If three players think one thing and the fourth
player still disagrees after discussion this merits replaying the point.
Chapter 9: Observe
rs and their Responsibilities
The observer’s job is to facilitate roundnet matches by settling disputes, ensuring adherence to
rules, and promoting sportsmanship. While the observers are responsible for making a number
of active calls, the responsibility
for fair play and sportsmanship remains on the players.
When an observer sees any of the following infractions take place they are
obligated to stop play and take the proper course of action:
9.1.1. Foot fault
9.1.2. Encroachment over
the service line
9.1.3. Illegal service toss
9.1.4. Illegal net contact
9.1.5. Illegal ball contact
lift, carry, catch, double hit, etc.
9.1.6. Incorrect rotation or serving order
9.1.7. Incorrect score
9.1.8. Timing violations (time in between games
and points, timeouts)
9.1.9. Player misconduct
9.1.10. Players are allowed to make active calls that they feel the observer missed. If the
observer disagrees, they will lose the point. This stipulation is in place to encourage
spirited and sportsmanlike ga
mes. Players can even make active calls against
9.2. Passive calls
Passive calls are calls made by players. If players cannot come to an
agreement about a call, they can go to the observer for a decision. Once a call goes to the
he observer’s decision is final. If the observer is unable to make a definitive call, the
point will be replayed.
For all non
active calls, players should always try to settle the
matter among themselves before going to the observer. The observer sho
uld never add their
input on a passive call until the players ask for the observer’s perspective.
If teams continue play after a possible infraction, they cannot ask for an
observer to make a decision.
9.4. One Observer
When using one
observer, the observer should position themselves to the
side of the server with a clear view of potential foot faults or encroachment infractions.
9.5. Two Observers
When using two observers, they should be position themselves opposite
of each other. T
he observer positioned to the side of the server is primarily focused on watching
for foot faults or illegal toss violations. The observer positioned to the side of the receiver is
primarily focused on watching for pockets and height violations.
When using three observers, one will line up to the side of the server.
This observer's primary job is to watch for foot faults. The second will line up to the side of and
behind the receiver. This observer's primary job is to watch for pock
ets and height
violations.The third will line up on the server’s other side to get a clear view of encroachment
over the 6
foot boundary and illegal tosses.
9.7. Four Observers
When using four observers, one will line up to the side of the server. This
observer's primary job is to watch for foot faults. The second will line up to the side of and
behind the receiver. This observer's primary job is to watch for pockets and height violations.
The third will line up on the server’s other side to get a clear
view of encroachment over the 6
foot boundary and illegal tosses. The fourth will line up on the other side of the receiver.
9.8. Head Observer
When there are multiple observers being used, before the match starts
one of the observers should be chosen
to be the head observer. The head observer should be
the person with the most experience. The head observer helps make final decisions on calls
and is responsible for enforcing player misconduct penalties.
9.9. Making Calls
9.9.1. Calls are not made by m
ajority rule. When asked for a decision observers should
huddle up and determine who had the best perspective. Whoever has the best
perspective should be making the call.
9.9.2. If there is a disagreement between observers with an equally good perspective
the head observers decision will be final.
9.9.3. If a majority of observers agree, but the head observer disagrees and they all
have equally good perspectives, it is ultimately the head observer’s decision.
9.9.4. If none of the observers have a good p
erspective on the play in question they can
call for a replay of the point.
In the middle of a point, two players from opposite teams run into each other.
After the collision, Team A is unable to get the ball back on the net. Tea
m A calls a
hinder on Team B. Team B does not believe a hinder occurred. Team B asks for the
observer’s decision. If the observer calls a hinder, the point is replayed. If the observer
declares a hinder did not occur, Team B is awarded the point.
first serve flies through the hand of a player on Team A. Team A calls the
serve too high. Team B does not believe the serve was too high. Team B asks for the
observer’s decision. If the observer calls the serve too high, then Team B will have one
nd gets a second service attempt. If the observer calls the serve legal, Team B is
awarded the point.
9.10.3. Team A thinks that Team B might have hit the rim on a shot. They play out the
point and Team A ends up losing the point. Team A says they should
replay the point
because of the possible rim shot. Team B disputes the fact that it hit the rim. Team A
asks for the observer's decision. The observer states that they cannot make a decision
because the infraction occurred mid
point. Team B is awarded the